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ILLUSTRATIONS 



VIVISECTION; 



EXPERIMENTS ON LIVING ANIMALS. 



FROM THE WORKS OF 



PHYSIOLOGISTS, 



LECONS DE PHYSIOLOGIE OPERATOIRE (OPERATIVE PHYSIOLOGY). 

By Claude Bernard. 

LECONS SUR LA CHALEUR ANIMALE. By Claude Bernard. 
LA PRESSION BAROMETRIQUE. By Paul Bert, Paris, 1878. 

AS REPRODUCED IN 

"BERNARD'S MARTYRS" and "LIGHT IN DARK PLACES." 

By MISS FRANCES POWER COBBE. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE RESTRICTION OF VIVISECTION, 

No. 1706 Chestnut Street. 

1887. 



1 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



VIVISECTION; 



EXPERIMENTS ON LIVING ANIMALS, 



FROM THE WORKS OF 

PHYSIOLOGISTS, 

NAMELY, 

LECONS DE PHYSIOLOGIE OPERATOIRE (OPERATIVE PHYSIOLOGY). 

By Claude Bernard. 

LECONS SUR LA CHALEUR ANIMALE. By Claude Bernard. 
LA PRESSION BAROMETRIQUE. By Paul Bert, Paris, 1878. 

AS REPRODUCED IN 

"BERNARD'S MARTYRS " and " LIGHT IN DARK PLACES." 

By MISS FRANCES POWER COBBE. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE RESTRICTION OF VIVISECTION, 

No. 1706 Chestnut Street. 
1887. 



DO NOT REFUSE TO LOOK AT THESE PICTURES. 

IF YOU CANNOT BEAR TO LOOK AT THEM, WHAT MUST THE 

SUFFERING BE TO THE ANIMALS WHO UNDERGO 

THE CRUELTIES THEY REPRESENT? 



" These animals are entirely at our mercy. They are dumb and power- 
less to resist. There is no kind of brutality that we cannot, at our 
pleasure, inflict upon them." Then, how base is it to take advantage of 
their unprotected condition, and torture them in such a manner. Is not 
the idea repulsive to every generous mind ? 

"Better I or my friend should die," says Professor Henry J. Bigelow, 
" than protract existence through accumulated years of torture upon 
animals whose exquisite suffering we cannot fail to infer, even though 
they may have neither voice nor feature to express it." 



FROM 

BERNARD'S MARTYRS. 



A COMMENT ON CLAUDE BERNARDS PHYSIOLOGIE OPERATOIRE. 



" This book will, it is hoped, convey to all its readers the fact which the 
opponents of vivisection have long been laboring to convey, namely : 
that the practice, as it now exists, is very seldom the occasional re- 
source of the practical surgeon, or even of the puzzled physiologist (like 
Sir Charles Bell), who desires to solve once in a way some knotty and 
important problem by a most carefully prepared experiment never to 
be needlessly repeated. It is, on the contrary, ^profession — a regular 
and independent business — to which men devote themselves with ardor 
and ambition, and pursue in as orderly a manner, week after week and 
year after year, as any other trade, till many of them might boast that 
they have slaughtered more animals than the most experienced butcher 
jn the shambles. Modern vivisection may be defined, in short, to be the 
limitless invention, performance and repetition, by scores of inquirers, 
of every kind and sort of operation on every portion of the living frames 
of animals, and pre-eminently of the most sensitive animals. Brains, 
nerves, eyes, hearts, veins, intestines, bones, limbs and skin — nothing 
escapes, and no part fails to afford a practically boundless field for the 
ingenuity of the physiologist ; or if the imagination of one ever flags, 
it is soon stimulated into double activity to disprove the boasted dis- 
coveries of another." 

" We stand, in truth, face to face with a new vice — new, at least, in its 
vast modern development, and the passion wherewith it is pursued — the 
Vice of Scientific Cruelty. It is not the old vice of cruelty for cruelty" 1 's 
sake; of that even the worst physiologist may probably be acquitted. 
It is, in strict ethical definition, the fault of indifference to a great moral 
consideration (namely, that of the sufferings caused by our actions) raised 
to the rank of a vice by the enormous extent to which it is carried. 
The Yivisector ought to be stopped in pursuing his (otherwise) lawful 
end of advancing physiological science, by the consideration that his 
means of advancing it involve a moral offence, (theologically viewed 
the sin) of causing torture worse than death to guiltless creatures. 
This consideration, as has been said, ought to stop him, just as any other 
man ought to be stopped in pursuing any legitimate end (e. g., the ad- 
vancement of the interests of his country or family), if he find he can- 
not carry it out without employing immoral means, deceit, robbery, 
persecution, treachery or any other unrighteous mode of action." 

Frances Power Cobbe. 
4 



" That the dominion of man over the lower world is a moral trust, is a 
proposition which no man living can deny." — Lord Erskine. 




Fioni La Prtttion Baromelrique, by Paul Bert. 



"I cannot refrain from expressing my horror at the amount of torture 
Dr. Brachet inflicted. I hardly think ktiowledge is worth having at such 
a purchase." — John Elliotson, m.d., f.tc.s. 




From Cyon's Atlas. 

This illustration represents the head of a rabbit, of which the top 
of the skull is removed to show the position of the nerves, and the 



instrument is exhibited piercing the head and reaching the nerve (the 
trigeminus) on which it is desired to operate. The description given 
by Cyon of the method of operation (Methodik, p. 510) is as follows : 
" The rabbit is firmly fastened to the ordinary vivisecting table by 
means of Czermak's holder. Then the rabbit's head is held by the 
left hand, so that the thumb of that hand rests on the condyle of the 
lower jaw. This is used as a point cPappui for the insertion of the 
knife. . . To reach the hollow of the temple the instrument must be 
guided forward and upward, thus avoiding the hard portion of the tem- 
poral bone, and leading the knife directly into the cranial cavity. . . 
The trigeminus then comes under the knife. Now holding the head of 
the animal very firmly, the blade of the knife is directed backwards 
and downwards and pressed hard in this direction against the base of the 
skull. The nerve is then generally cut behind the Gasserian ganglion, 
which is announced by a violent cry of agony (einen heftigen Schmer- 
zensschrei) of the animal." 




Cyon. Table XXII. 
Ludwig's machine for measuring the rate of the blood-current in arteries of rabbits. 



8 

"For my own part, I cannot believe that Providence should intend 
that the secrets of nature are to be discovered by means of cruelty, and 
I am sure that those who are guilty of protracted cruelties do not 
possess minds capable of appreciating the laws of nature. Experiments 
have never been the means of discovery, and a survey of what has 
been attempted of late years in physiology will prove that the opening 
of living animals has done more to perpetuate error than to confirm the 
just views taken from the study of anatomy and the natural motions." — 
Sir Charles Bell, f.r.c.s. 




Cyon. Table VII. 



The above illustration represents an instrument very frequently men- 
tioned in these works: Czermak's Rabbit-holder, with the rabbit's head 
fixed in it, and the nerves of the neck dissected out. This illustration, 
as well as several subsequent ones, is taken from M. de Cyon's splendid 
volume, the Methodik der physiologischen experimente und vivisectionen, 
with Atlas (Giessen, St. Petersburg, 1876). 



9 

" How few facts of immediate considerable value to our race have of 
late years been extorted from the dreadful sufferings of dumb animals, 
the cold-blooded cruelties now more and more practised under the 
authority of Science ! 

" The reaction which follows every excess will in time bear indignantly 
upon this. Until then, it is dreadful to think how many poor animals 
will be subjected to excruciating agony, as one medical college after 
another becomes penetrated with the idea that vivisection is a part of 
modern teaching, and that, to hold way with other institutions, they, 
too, must have their vivisector, their mutilated dogs, their Guinea-pigs, 
their rabbits, their chamber of torture and of horrors to advertise as a 
laboratory." — Henry J. Bigelow, m.d., Professor of Surgery in Har- 
vard College. 




From Bernard's Physioloyie Operaloire, p. 137. 



10 

Lawson Tait, one of the most eminent living surgeons, says in an ad- 
dress : " In 1872 or 1873 I was the witness of an experiment which 
thrilled me with horror, which I have never related in detail, and con- 
cerning the sight of which I shall preserve silence. I am, however, 
bound to say that I left the room with the feeling that if such things were 
to be done in the pursuit of science, I should like to part company with 
her." 




ES2?3> 



" M. de Cyon in his article in the Contemporary Review, April, 1883, 
mentions this drawing (which was one of those exhibited life-size on the 
hoardings of London in 1877), and asserts that it was drawn from the 
dead body of the animal. It may be possible that the actual dog from 



11 

which M. cle Cyon made his sketch was at that moment no longer living, 
but that the hideous mutilations exhibited in the drawing had been in- 
flicted while he was still living is proved by two circumstances : one by 
the presence of the elaborate muzzle, which assuredly no one would 
have placed on the corpse of a dog, and secondly, by the presence of 
the cannula fixed into the duct of the salivary gland, — a gland which, of 
course, like any other, ceases lo secrete at death, and into which, there- 
fore, it is absurd to suppose a cannula would have been inserted after 
death. M. de Cyon's assertion that the dog represented is a dead one is 
also thoroughly disposed of by an extract from his own book quoted in 
an excellent letter by Mr. Ernest Bell, published in the Spectator, April 
7th, 1SS3. Speaking of the plates in M. Cyon's work— 

"When he tells us that these plates are, ' of course, drawn from the 
dead body of the animals,' he probably is speaking the literal truth as 
regards the plates, but in as far as he wishes us to infer that the opera- 
tions they represent were done on the dead body, he is saying what his 
books show to be untrue. For, concerning one of the plates (No. xv), 
I find on p. li!>l of the work the following paragraph: — 

" ' If the experiment is made only for demonstration, one can drug the 
animal beforehand with chloral, chloroform, or curari; and if the last- 
named poison is applied, artificial respiration must be used. If, on the 
other hand, one wishes to use the experiment for purposes of observa- 
tion, particularly if the investigation concerns the influence of the circu- 
lation on the activity of the glands, it is better to avoid these drugs, on 
account of their influence on the circulation. One should choose for the 
experiment strong, lively animals, which have been well-fed for a few 
days previously.' " 



" It is said that the use of anaesthetics is the means of preventing these 
kinds of operations (experiments on the brains of monkeys, by David 
Ferrier) from causing pain. Although in the first instance an animal 
may be under the influence of anaesthetics, you cannot keep up a pro- 
tracted comatose condition for days, or weeks, or months, and therefore 
it is perfectly idle to suggest that the horror of tbe operations is at all 
diminished." — Speech of the Hon. R. T. Reid, in the House of 
Commons, April, 1883. 



12 

" Vivisection has proved useless and misleading, and, in the interests of 
true science, its employment should be stopped, so that the energy and 
skill of scientific investigators should be directed into better and safer 
channels. I hail with satisfaction the rousing which is evident in the 
public mind upon this question, and I feel confident that before long 
the alteration of opinion, which I have had to confess in my own case, 
will spread widely amongst the members of my useful profession." — 
Lawson Tait, f.r.c.s. 




We now come to an illustration which will be recognized by many 
readers — the first of the two stoves invented and used by Claude 
Bernard. It is taken from his Legons sur la Chaleur Animate, Paris, 
1870, p. 347, and represents, as Bernard states, his "first apparatus 
for the study of the Mechanism of Death by Heat." Of the results of 
experiments made with it he prints several tables. These tables show 
how dogs, pigeons and rabbits baked in the stove, expired at the tem- 
peratures of 90° or 100° Cent, in G minutes, 10 minutes, 2-t minutes, etc., 
and at higher temperatures at different intervals ; and again how, when, 



13 

the apparatus formed a hot bath (i.e., the animal was boiled iustead of 
baked alive), a different scale of heat and subsequent death was observed. 
A small dog placed in a temperature of 55* expired at 8 minutes, and 
so on. Again, another series of results were obtained when the head of 
the victim was kept outside the stove, while its body was baked or 
boiled. "The animals" (Bernard notes, page 3-"><i) "exhibit a series 
of symptoms always the same and characteristic. At first the creature 
is a little agitated. Soon the respiration and circulation are quickened. 
The animal opens its mouth and breathes hard. Soon it becomes im- 
possible to count its pantings ; at last it falls into convulsions, and dies 
generally in uttering a cry." 

"In a subsequent table Bernard gives the particulars of the deaths 
in this apparatus of seventeen dogs and of numerous rabbits and 
pigeons ; and then proceeds in the next lecture to show his audience the 
diagram of another and more elaborate stove, in which many other 
series of animals were sacrificed." 



"Under the heading of 'Dogs,' Claude Bernard tells us that 'By 
reason of their docility dogs generally allow themselves to be caught with- 
out resistance. But when they are dogs which have strayed and been 
brought to the laboratory, they are either intimidated, as in the case of 
sheep-dogs and similar species, or they are enraged, defiant, and stand- 
ing on the defensive, if they belong to the bulldog kind. With such 
animals certain precautions are necessary to secure them.' 

" But if the animal by reason of his strength and fury cannot be se- 
cured, there is still one extreme method which always succeeds. We 
have only to throw a running knot over the dog's neck, either directly or 
by the aid of a long pole, and then draw it tight either round the leg of 
a table or by hanging it over a door until it be half strangled. 

" In this way the half-asphyxiated animal falls into a state of helpless- 
ness and complete insensibility, and we must then muzzle him rapidly 
and tie his forepaws, with which he will try to get the muzzle off again. 
The running knot is then loosened and the muzzled and garroted animal 
recovers in a few minutes " (page 10S). 

Under the head of " Cats " we are told that " Cats are more terrible 
than dogs, inasmuch as they are armed with teeth and claws, while their 
suppleness and agility make it more difficult to secure them. It is, more- 
over, almost impossible to master an enraged cat, which springs like a 
tiger and tears everything he can get his claws upon." 

" Muzzling a cat is by no means a simple operation, and for that rea- 
son Walter used to sew the lips together instead." 



14 

" The position of vivisection as a method of scientific research stands 
alone amongst the infinite variety of roads for the discovery of Nature's 
secrets, as being open to strong prima facie objection. 

" No one can urge the slightest ground of objection against the astrono- 
mer, the chemist, the electrician or the geologist in their ways of work- 
ing ; and the great commendation of all other workers is the comparative 
certainty of their results. But for the physiologist working upon a 
living animal there are the two strong objections : that he is violating a 
strong and widespread public sentiment, and that he tabulates results of 
the most uncertain. and often quite contradictory, kind." — Lawson Tait, 
f.r.c s. 




No. 5. From De Graaf. 



" To stop the cries of the animals without hindering respiration, the 
windpipe is first dissected out and then a hole made into it. It is then 
raised up and a large nail is passed in across it behind, so as to prevent 
the blood from running into the respiratory tract." " Many other phys- 
iologists have tried, like De Graaf, to stifle the cries of the animals in 
order to avoid the complaints of persons living in the neighborhood of 
laboratories. Dupuytren used to cut the recurrent laryngeal nerves so 
as to render the animal dumb, and I have often done the same operation 
for the same purpose, only that I operated by the subcutaneous method 
by a process I shall describe elsewhere." — La Physiologie Operatoire. 



15 



"Vivisection is, to my mind, a desecration of the highest objects to 
which the scientific mind can aspire, to the lowest and most barren 
modes of inquiry." — George Macilwain, f.r.C.s. 




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" Of all those experiments none are entered into at greater length, or 
so much excite a thrill of horror within us, as those under the head of 
' Catheterism of the blood vessels,' which show how long flexible tubes 
are inserted at some convenient part of a superficial blood vessel, and 
then pushed along into the different parts of the heart and deeper blood 
vessels. Blood may thus be obtained from a given part for analysis; or 
the temperature may be ascertained in such otherwise inaccessible re- 
gions. In these experiments there is no pretense of giving anaesthetics; 
and as a matter of fact as well as logic none are given, for they would 
greatly interfere with the results when a careful analysis is to be made 
of the blood so obtained from special regions, or when it is a question 
of the temperature which normally exists there." 



16 

"Whether vivisection is conducive to science, or the reverse, there is 
one great preliminary consideration : on what authority of Scripture, or 
any other form of revelation, do they (the vivisectors) rest their right to 
subject God's creatures to such unspeakable sufferiugs? "—Speech of 
Lord Shaftesbury. 




"Simultaneous eatheterism of the great arteries and veins (vence cavce and aorta) fron the 
right femoral artery and vein by means of sounds containing long thermo-electric needles. — 
General conditions of the experiment: On the left of the animal, fixed in the trough, are 
represented the electric commutator and the galvanometer, the deviation in which indicates 
the difference of temperature of the surrounding fluids (arterial and venous blood) iu which the 
tnermo-electric sounds are placed. 



" To the above description we may add that the jugular vein in the neck 
of the bound-down and muzzled animal has first to be carefully dissected 



17 

out and opened into, and, through the opening thus made, the bent tube 
or catheter has been inserted and pushed down through the heart into 
the great vein which brings the blood from the liver and hinder part of 
the body. 

" It may be supposed that such elaborate apparatus and continually re- 
peated vivisection have completely settled the question as to whether 
the arterial blood or the venous blood was hottest, if indeed the question 
was worth settling. That this is far from being the case we have the 
evidence of Bernard before us at page 402, where he says : ' The ques- 
tion of the localization of the source of animal heat ought to be settled 
by the simple experiment of testing whether arterial or venous blood is 
hottest. "Well, nothing is more difficult to settle than this question. 
After more than half a century of experiments physiologists have been 
unable to come to any agreement upon it. Some have declared that 
arterial blood was hotter than venous blood. Others, on the contrary 
(and I am one of these), have found venous blood to be hotter than arte- 
rial blood ; while a third category of experimenters, who do not believe 
in the fixity of the phenomena which have their seats in the animal 
economy, declare that sometimes the arterial blood is hottest and some- 
times the venous blood.' 

"The illustrations on pages 15 and 16, among many others, sufficiently 
show the horrible conditions in which the poor animals are placed when 
subjected to such experiments, and, instead of repeating all the steps 
to be taken and the precautions necessary, it may prove quite sufficient 
to reproduce a literal translation of the descriptive text accompanying 
each of the woodcuts." 




From La Physiologie Operatoire. — Claude Bernard. 



18 

" It is very certain that the status of the profession may be lowered by 
being associated in the public mind with vivisection. There are already 
signs of this, and many medical men would rejoice to see their profes- 
sion delivered from the opprobrium that has come upon it in con- 
sequence of this practice." — James Macauley, m.d., f.r.c.s., Edin- 
burgh. 




" Let us come," says Paul Bert in his large book on La Pression Baro- 
metrique, p. 800, " to the description of the convulsive attack (produced 
by placing the victim for hours under compressed oxygen). It is really 
curious and frightful, [effrayante.) 

" Let us take a case of medium intensity. When the animal is taken 
out of the machine it is generally in full tonic convulsions. The four 
paws are stiffened, the trunk is recurved backward, the eyes are starting 
from the head, the jaws clinched. Soon there is a sort of loosening to 
which succeeds a new crisis of stiffenings with clonic convulsions, re- 
sembling at once a crisis of strychnine poisoning, and an attack of teta- 
nus. . . Sensibility is preserved. 

" In lighter cases, instead of attacks so violent as this, one may lift the 
animal by one paw like a piece of wood, as figure 61 shows. We ob- 
serve disordered movements and local convulsions," etc. 



19 

"Finally, as regards anaesthetics, it is needful that the reader should 
dispel from his mind all illusion on the subject. No defence of Vivi- 
section is so frequently offered and so generally accepted as the assertion 
that, in the vast majority of experiments, the animals are rendered 
wholly insensible to pain by means of anaesthetics. Persons who shrink 
from the miserable subject naturally seize on this assurance with relief, 
and thenceforth turn a deaf ear to the advocates of the suppression of 
the practice. What is the truth of the case? 

" There are to be considered : 1st. Real anaesthetics (chloroform, ether, 
nitrous oxide, etc.). 2d. Narcotics (opium, chloral, etc.). od. Mock 
anaesthetics (Curare). * * 

" Of the third alternative, the Mock Anaesthetic, Curare. Here 
again Dr. Hoggan bears testimony : — 

" If there be anything reliable in the results obtained by experimental physi- 
ology, it is the ingeniously ascertained effects of Curare. Could these now be 
disproved, it would establish the truth of the sneer so often heard, ' that Vivi- 
section only requires to prove a thing, in order that fresh hecatombs of animals 
be tortured to disprove it.' 

" Claude Bernard, the greatest authority upon, as he is the greatest discoverer 
of, the effects of Curare, says of it in Revue Scientifique for 1871-2, p. 892 : 
' Curare acting on the nervous system only suppresses the action of the motor 
nerves, leaving sensation intact. Curare is not an anaesthetic.' Vol. vi, p. 591 : 
' Curare renders all movement impossible, but it does not hinder the animal 
from suffering and from being conscious of pain.' These opinions of his are 
to be found repeated twenty times in the same work, in which he also mentions 
that they were proved on a human patient, operated upon under the influence 
of Curare, who was quite sensible throughout, and suffering frightful pain. Even 
in his latest remarks on the same subject (vol. 1874-75, p. 1117) he refers to 
experiments where the patients on their recovery had been able to relate ' that 
during paralysis they had been fully aware of their existence, and of all that 
happened around them.' Vulpian also, the next best authority, says in the 
latest work : 'Legons sur Vappareil locomoteur,' Paris, 1875, p. 660: 'Curare 
does not act on the sensory nerves, or, at least, does not abolish their func- 
tion.' " 

" Again, Claude Bernard, in his classic paper ' On Curare,' in the 
Revue de Deux Mondes for September, 1861, after quoting the opinion of 
travelers, and more especially of Waterton, says (p. 173) : — 

" Thus all their descriptions offer us a pleasant and tranquil picture of death 
by Curare. A gentle sleep seems to occupy the transition from life to death. 
But it is nothing of the sort ; the external appearances are deceitful. In this 
paper it will be our duty to point out how much we may be in error relative to 
the interpretation of natural phenomena where science has not taught us the 



20 

cause and unveiled the mechanism. If, in fact, we pursue the essential part of 
our subject by means of experiments into the organic analysis of vital extinc- 
tion, we discover that this death, which appears to steal on in so gentle a man- 
ner and so exempt from pain, is, on the contrary, accompanied by the most 
atrocious sufferings that the imagination of man can conceive (and ante, p. 162). 
In this motionless body, behind that glazing eye, and with all the appearance 
of death, sensitiveness and intelligence persist in their entirety. The corpse 
before us hears and distinguishes all that is done around it. It suffers when 
pinched or irritated ; in a word, it has still consciousness and volition, but it 
has lost the instruments which serve to manifest them." 



" We next reach one of the many instruments in use (this is Schwann's) 
for sustaining Artificial Respiration. It is to be understood that when 
an animahis curarized the muscles are so completely paralyzed that it 
ceases to breathe, and would immediately die were not artificial breath- 
ing kept up by pumping air into the lungs. This is sometimes done by 
hand, but in large laboratories it is customary to keep a water-engine or 
steam-engine at work for the purpose. In Ludwig's laboratory it has 
been stated that the engine in question never ceases playing day or 
night, sustaining life in the dogs and other animals extended on the 
vivisecting tables around." 



21 




Instrument for producing artificial respiration. — From'Bernard's Physiologie Operatoire. 



DOES VIVISECTION PAY? 

BY 

ALBERT LEFFINGWELL, M.D. 

EXTRACT. 

Not long ago, in a certain medical college in the State of New York, 
I saw what Doctor Sharpey, for thirty years the professor of physiology 
in the University Medical College, London, once characterized by anti- 
thesis as " Magendie's in-famous experiment," it having been first per- 
formed by that eminent physiologist. It was designed to prove that the 
stomach, although supplied with muscular coats, is, during the act of 
vomiting, for the most part passive. * * Long before the con- 
clusion of the experiment the animal became conscious, and its cries of 
suffering were exceedingly painful to hear. Now, granting that this 
experiment impressed an abstract scientific fact upon the memories of 
all who saw it, nevertheless it remains significantly true that the fact 
thus demonstrated had no conceivable relation to the treatment of dis- 
ease. It is not to-day regarded as conclusive of the theory which, after 
nearly two hundred repetitions of his experiment, was doubtless con- 
sidered by Magendie as established beyond question. Doctor Sharpey, 
a strong advocate of vivisection, by the way, condemned it as a per- 
fectly unjustifiable experiment, since, "besides its atrocity, it was 
really purposeless." Was this repetition of the experiment which I 
have described worth its cost ? Was the gain worth the pain ? * * 

Every medical student in New York knows that experiments 
involving pain are repeatedly performed to illustrate teaching. It is no 
secret; one need not go beyond the frank admissions of our later text- 
books on physiology for abundant proof, not only of this, but of the 
extent to which experimentation is now carried in this country. "We 
have long been in the habit, in class demonstrations, of removing the 
optic lobe on one side from a pigeon," says Professor Flint, of Believue 
Hospital Medical College, in his excellent work on Physiology.* " The 
experiment of dividing the sympathetic in the neck, especially in rab- 
bits, is so easily performed that the phenomena observed by Bernard 
and Brown-Sequard have been repeatedly verified. We have often done 
this in class demonstrations.'" t " The cerebral lobes were removed from 
a young pigeon in the usual way, an operation * * which we practice 
yearly as a class demonstration.'''' X Claude Bernard was the first to suc- 
ceed in following the spinal accessory nerve back to the jugular fora- 
men, seizing it here with a strong pair of forceps, and drawing it out by 
the roots. This experiment is practiced in our own country. " We have 
found this result (loss of voice) to follow in the cat after the spinal ac- 
cessory nerves have been torn out by the roots," says Professor John C. 
Dal ton, in his treatise on Human Physiology. § "This operation is 
difficult,'" writes Professor Flint, " but we have several times performed 
it with entire success ; " || and his assistant at Believue Medical College 
has succeeded " in extirpating these nerves for class demonstrations." 

*A Text-book of Human Physiology, designed for the use of Practitioners and Students of 
Medicine, by Austin Flint, Jr., m.d. D. Apnletou & Co. New York : 1876 (page 722). 
fPage 738. % Page 585. § Page 489. || Page 629. 

22 



23 

In withdrawal of blood from the hepatic veins of a dog, "avoiding the 
administration of an anaesthetic " is one of the steps recommended.* 
The curious experiment of Bernard, in which artificial diabetes is pro- 
duced by irritating the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain, is care- 
fully described, and illustrations afforded both of the instrument and the 
animal undergoing the operation. 

There is one experiment in regard to which the severe characteriza- 
tion of English scientists is especially applicable, from the pain neces- 
sarily attending it. Numerous investigators have long established the 
fact that the great sensory nerve of the head and face is endowed with 
an exquisite degree of sensibility. More than half a century ago, both 
Magendie and Sir Charles Bell pointed out that merely exposing and 
touching this fifth nerve gave signs of most acute pain. "All who have 
divided this root in living animals must have recognized, not only that 
it is sensitive, but that its sensibility is far more acute than that of any 
other nervous trunk in the body.t "The fifth pair," says Professor 
John C. Dalton, "is the most acutely sensitive nerve in the whole 
body. Its irritation by mechanical means always causes intense pain. 
and even though the animal be nearly unconscious from the influence of 
ether, any severe injury to its large root is almost invariably followed 
by cries." X Testimony on this point is uniform and abundant. If 
science speaks anywhere with assurance, it is in regard to the properties 
of this nerve. Yet every year the experiment is repeated before medi- 
cal classes, simply to demonstrate accepted facts. "This is an opera- 
tion," says Professor Flint, referring to the division of this nerve, " that 
we have frequently performed with success." He adds that "it is diffi- 
cult from the fact that one is working in the dark, and it requires a certain 
amount of dexterity, to be acquired only by practice.'''' * * This is one 
of Magendie's celebrated experiments; perhaps the reader fancies that 
in its modern repetitions the animal suffers nothing, being rendered 
insensible by anaesthetics? u It is much more satisfactory to divide the 
nerve without etherizing the animal, as the evidence of pain is an important 
guide in this delicate operation." Anaesthetics, however, are sometimes 
used, but not so as wholly to overcome the pain. 

Testimony of individuals, indicating the extent to which vivisection 
is at present practiced in this State might be given ; but it seems better 
to submit proof within the reach of every reader, and the accuracy of 
which is beyond cavil. No legal restrictions whatever exist, preventing 
the performance of any experiment desired. Indeed, I think it may 
safely be asserted that, in the city of New York, in a single medical 
school, more pain is inflicted upon living animals as a means of teaching 
well-known facts, than is permitted to be done for the same purpose in 
all the medical schools of Great Britian and Ireland. And cui bono? 
"I can truly say," writes a physician who has seen all these experi- 
ments, " that not only have I never seen any results at all commensurate 
with the suffering inflicted, but I cannot recall a single experiment which, 
in the slightest degree, has increased my ability to relieve pain, or in 
any way fitted me to cope better with disease." 

— Scribner^s Magazine, Jidy, 1880. 

*Flint : " Text-book of Human Physiology" (page 463). 
tPage 641. I Dalton's " Human Physiology," (page 466). 



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